1. Hadtex merupakan salah satu perusahaan terbesar yang memproduksi PET Recycle Fiber , PET Spunbond , and flakes yang berlokasi di indonesia

 

Spain :

Hadtex es una de las compañías más grandes que produce fibra de reciclaje de PET, PET Spunbond y escamas ubicadas en Indonesia

 

Bangladesh (B.Bengali) :

Hyāḍaṭēksa indōnēśiẏāẏa abasthita pi’iṭi risā’ikēla phā’ibāra, pi’iṭi spānabanḍa ēbaṁ phlākasa utpādanakārī br̥hattama sansthāgulira madhyē ēkaṭi

Atau

হ্যাডটেক্স ইন্দোনেশিয়ায় অবস্থিত পিইটি রিসাইকেল ফাইবার, পিইটি স্পানবন্ড এবং ফ্লাকস উত্পাদনকারী বৃহত্তম সংস্থাগুলির মধ্যে একটি

 

Pakistan (B.Urdu) :

ہیڈٹیکس انڈونیشیا میں واقع پیئٹی ریسائکل فائبر ، پیئٹی اسپن بونڈ ، اور فلیکس تیار کرنے والی ایک بڑی کمپنی ہے۔

 

Japanese :

PT hadtexはインドネシアの市場をリードする製造業者のPET 再生リサイクルとスパンボンドと薄片を生産約します。

 

Chinese :

PT Hadtex是印度尼西亚最大的生产纺粘和PET回收纤维的公司之一。

 

Arabic :

PT Hadtex هي واحدة من أكبر الشركات التي تنتج ألياف PET إعادة تدوير الأليافو سبونبوند و رقائق في إندونيسيا.

 

Russia :

PT Hadtex является одной из крупнейших компаний по производству вторичного волокна ПЭТ и Спанбонд и Хлопья в Индонезии.

 

 

  1. Hadtex merupakan salah satu perusahaan terbesar yang memproduksi PET Recycle Staple Fiber , PET Spunbond , and flakes yang berlokasi di indonesia

 

Spain :

Hadtex es una de las compañías más grandes que produce fibra reciclada de PET, fibra discontinua de PET y escamas ubicadas en Indonesia

 

Bangladesh (B.Bengali) :

Hyāḍaṭēksa ēmana ēkaṭi br̥hattama kōmpāni yā indōnēśiẏāẏa abasthita pi’iṭi risā’ikēla sṭyāpala phā’ibāra, pi’iṭi spānabanḍa ēbaṁ phlyākasa utpādana karē

Atau

হ্যাডটেক্স এমন একটি বৃহত্তম কোম্পানি যা ইন্দোনেশিয়ায় অবস্থিত পিইটি রিসাইকেল স্ট্যাপল ফাইবার, পিইটি স্পানবন্ড এবং ফ্ল্যাকস উত্পাদন করে

 

Pakistan (B.Urdu) :

ہیڈٹیکس ان سب سے بڑی کمپنیوں میں سے ایک ہے جو انڈونیشیا میں واقع پیئٹی ری سائیکل اسٹپل فائبر ، پیئٹی اسپن بونڈ ، اور فلیکس تیار کرتی ہیں۔

 

Japanese:

PT hadtexはインドネシアの市場をリードする製造業者のPET再生リサイクルステープルとスパンボンドと薄片を生産約します。

 

Chinese:

PT Hadtex是印度尼西亚最大的生产纺粘和PET回收短纤维的公司之一。

 

Arabic :

PT Hadtex هي واحدة من أكبر الشركات التي تنتج ألياف  PET إعادة تدوير الألياف الأساسيةإعادة تدوير الأليافو سبونبوند و رقائق في إندونيسيا.

 

Russia :

PT Hadtex является одной из крупнейших компаний по производству вторичного волокна ПЭТ перерабатывают штапельное волокно и Спанбонд и Хлопья в Индонезии.

 

 

  1. Hadtex merupakan salah satu perusahaan terbesar yang memproduksi Regenerated Staple Fiber , PET Spunbond , and flakes yang berlokasi di indonesia

 

Spain :

Hadtex es una de las compañías más grandes que produce fibra discontinua regenerada, PET Spunbond y hojuelas ubicadas en Indonesia

 

Bangladesh (B.Bengali) :

Hyāḍaṭēksa an’yatama br̥hattama sansthā yā indōnēśiẏāẏa abasthita punarāẏa jēnārēṭēḍa sṭyāpala phā’ibāra, pi’iṭi spunabanḍa ēbaṁ phlākasa utpādana karē

Atau

হ্যাডটেক্স অন্যতম বৃহত্তম সংস্থা যা ইন্দোনেশিয়ায় অবস্থিত পুনরায় জেনারেটেড স্ট্যাপল ফাইবার, পিইটি স্পুনবন্ড এবং ফ্লাকস উত্পাদন করে

 

Pakistan (B.Urdu) :

ہیڈٹیکس ان سب سے بڑی کمپنیوں میں سے ایک ہے جو انڈونیشیا میں واقع ریجنریٹڈ اسٹپل فائبر ، پیئٹی اسپن بونڈ ، اور فلیکس تیار کرتی ہیں۔

 

 

 

Japanese :

PT hadtexはインドネシアの市場をリードする製造業者の再生ステープルファイバーとスパンボンドと薄片を生産約します。

 

Chinese :

PT Hadtex是印度尼西亚最大的生产纺粘和再生短纤维的公司之一。

 

Arabic :

PT Hadtex هي واحدة من أكبر الشركات التي تنتج ألياف  مجدد الألياف الأساسية الأساسيةإعادة تدوير الأليافو سبونبوند و رقائق في إندونيسيا.

 

Russia:

PT Hadtex является одной из крупнейших компаний по производству вторичного волокна Регенерированное штапельное волокно и Спанбонд и Хлопья в Индонезии.

 

 

  1. Hadtex merupakan salah satu perusahaan terbesar yang memproduksi RPET , PET Spunbond , and flakes yang berlokasi di indonesia

 

Spain :

Hadtex es una de las compañías más grandes que produce RPET, PET Spunbond y copos ubicados en Indonesia

 

Bangladesh (B.Bengali) :

Hyāḍaṭēksa indōnēśiẏāẏa abasthita ārapi’iṭi, pi’iṭi spānabanḍa ēbaṁ phlēksa utpādanakārī br̥hattama sansthāgulira madhyē ēkaṭi

Atau

হ্যাডটেক্স ইন্দোনেশিয়ায় অবস্থিত আরপিইটি, পিইটি স্পানবন্ড এবং ফ্লেক্স উত্পাদনকারী বৃহত্তম সংস্থাগুলির মধ্যে একটি

 

Pakistan (B.Urdu) :

ہیڈٹیکس انڈونیشیا میں واقع آر پی ای ٹی ، پی ای ٹی اسپن بونڈ ، اور فلیکس تیار کرنے والی ایک بڑی کمپنی ہے۔

 

Japanese :

PT hadtexはインドネシアの市場をリードする製造業者のRPETとスパンボンドと薄片を生産約します。

 

Chinese :

PT Hadtex是印度尼西亚最大的生产纺粘和RPET的公司之一。

 

Arabic :

PT Hadtex هي واحدة من أكبر الشركات التي تنتج ألياف  RPET الأساسيةإعادة تدوير الأليافو سبونبوند و رقائق في إندونيسيا

 

Russia:

PT Hadtex является одной из крупнейших компаний по производству вторичного волокна RPET и Спанбонд и Хлопья в Индонезии.

1. POLYESTER NONWOVEN

Polyester nonwoven fabric could be many kinds. The raw material of our nonwoven is slice particles. We also call it filament nonwoven fabric. It is so-called spun bond non-woven fabric (cloth).The component of each continuous filament fiber is only 100% polyester. So, we also call it 100% polyester (PES) spun bond nonwoven fabric or monocomponent spun bond nonwoven fabric.
Features
1. It is hydrophobic. Whether the water can go through the nonwoven surface which depends on the weight. Lighter weight will easier go through than the heavier weight. We call it water-repellent or waterproof at certain conditions.
2. High temperature resistant.
As you know,the melting point of polyester nonwoven fabric is around 260℃.It is dimensional stability during the high temperature conditions. Perfect for heat transfer printing.
3. It has very good strength, excellent air permeability. And is anti-pull, anti-tear and anti-aging.
4. Polyester spunbond nonwoven which has a very special  physica  property is anti-gamma. Polypropylene does not because no additives to be added during the production process. So, it is non-toxic to human skin etc.
5. Eco-free.
Application
Medical Products
Protective clothing – Face masks – Isolation gowns – Surgical gowns – Surgical drapes and covers – Surgical scrub suits – Caps
Packaging materials
Desiccant package, sorbents packaging – Gifts box, files box, various  nonwoven bags – Book covers – Mailing envelopes – Express envelopes –  Courier bag and etc
Filters
Gasoline, oil and air-including filtration – Liquid and air filters – Vacuum bags – Laminates with non woven layer.
Construction & Agriculture
House wrap, asphalt overlay – Road and rail road beds – Golf and tennis courts – Wall covering backings – Acoustical wall coverings – Upholstery backings – Roofing materials and tile under layment – Soil stabilizers and roadway underlayment – Foundation stabilizers – Erosion control – Canals construction – Drainage system – Geo membranes protection – Frost protection – Agriculture mulch – Pond and canal water barriers – Sand infiltration barrier for drainage tile.
Others
Backing, primary and secondary use – Marine sail laminates – Table cover laminates – Chopped strand mat – Backing/Stabilizer – Sterilize medical products – Pillow, cushions, and padding covers – In quilts or comforters – Consumer and medical face masks – Mailing -Tarps, tenting and transportation(lumber, steel) Wrapping – Disposable clothing

2.PET SPUNBOND

General Nonwovens’s multi-beam spunbond line produces 100 % Polyester (PET / PES) spunlaid, thermally point bonded, nonwovens in the range of 10 to 200 g/m2 (0.3 to 6 oz/yd2) at a maximum net width of 3.4 meters (135 inches). The rolls winded on 7.6 mm (3inch) cores can be slit to any size between 60 mm to full width (2.3 to 135 inch) with an outer roll diameter up to 150cm (59 inch).
Sub-denier, micro, filaments and course filaments up to 4 dpf (denier per filament) are available. The unique technology combined with different bonding options available allows production of high performance, very low shrinkage PET nonwovens.
Shrinkage in polyester fabrics is an important factor in many technical applications. General Nonwovens is able to produce PET fabrics that virtually have NO SHRINKAGE. Due to this feature, General Nonwovens is polyester spunbond is used as carrier for extrusion coating, artificial leather, bituminous roofing, floor covering and composite medias.
General Nonwovens is the first-ever company to commercially and economically produce very light weight and very uniform, very low shrinkage polyester spunbond nonwovens.
The term ?light weight polyester spunbond? has been defined starting at 10 g/m2 (0.3 oz/yd2) fabrics.
The introduction of light weight and uniform fabrics provides important savings to many customers and allowing them to use less basis weight product with great properties replacing existing heavier weight products.
General Nonwovens is targeting Automotive, Filtration, Coating and Technical Textiles industry with polyester spunbonds. Controlled elongation, shrinkage, stiffness, dimensional and thermal stability can be set to satisfy the needs of the market segments served. Since the product is moldable, performable, pleatable and weldable it is highly preferred in the industry.

3. NONWOVEN FABRIC

Non-woven fabric is a fabric-like material made from staple fibre (short) and long fibres (continuous long), bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment. The term is used in the textile manufacturing industry to denote fabrics, such as felt, which are neither woven nor knitted. Some non-woven materials lack sufficient strength unless densified or reinforced by a backing. In recent years, non-woven have become an alternative to polyurethane foam.
Non-woven fabrics are broadly defined as sheet or web structures bonded together by entangling fiber or filaments (and by perforating films) mechanically, thermally or chemically. They are flat or tufted porous sheets that are made directly from separate fibres, molten plastic or plastic film. They are not made by weaving or knitting and do not require converting the fibres to yarn. Typically, a certain percentage of recycled fabrics and oil-based materials are used in non-woven fabrics. The percentage of recycled fabrics vary based upon the strength of material needed for the specific use. In addition, some non-woven fabrics can be recycled after use, given the proper treatment and facilities. For this reason, some consider non-woven a more ecological fabric for certain applications, especially in fields and industries where disposable or single use products are important, such as hospitals, schools, nursing homes and luxury accommodations.
Nonwoven fabrics are engineered fabrics that may be single-use, have a limited life, or be very durable. Nonwoven fabrics provide specific functions such as absorbency, liquid repellence, resilience, stretch, softness, strength, flame retardancy, washability, cushioning, thermal insulation, acoustic insulation, filtration, use as a bacterial barrier and sterility. These properties are often combined to create fabrics suited for specific jobs, while achieving a good balance between product use-life and cost. They can mimic the appearance, texture and strength of a woven fabric and can be as bulky as the thickest paddings. In combination with other materials they provide a spectrum of products with diverse properties, and are used alone or as components of apparel, home furnishings, health care, engineering, industrial and consumer goods.
Non-woven materials are used in numerous applications, including:
Medical
– isolation gowns
– surgical gowns
– surgical drapes and covers
– surgical masks
– surgical scrub suits
– caps
– medical packaging: porosity allows gas sterilization
– gloves
– shoe covers
– bath wipes
– wound dressings
– drug delivery
– plasters
Filters
– gasoline, oil and air – including HEPA filtration
– water, coffee, tea bags
– pharmaceutical industry
– mineral processing
– liquid cartridge and bag filters
– vacuum bags
– allergen membranes or laminates with non woven layers
Geotextiles

Nonwoven geotextile bags are much more robust than woven bags of the same thickness.

Geocomposite drain consisting of needle-punched nonwoven filter and carrier geotextiles of polypropylene staple fibers each having a mass per area of 200 g/m².
Nonwoven geotextile containers (sand bags) are used for
– soil stabilizers and roadway underlayment
– foundation stabilizers
– erosion control
– canals construction
– drainage systems
– geomembrane protection
– frost protection
– pond and canal water barriers
– sand infiltration barrier for drainage tile
– landfill liners
They are more robust in handling as compared to their woven counterparts, and therefore were often preferred in large-scale erosion protection projects such as those at Amrumbank West; Narrow Neck, Queensland; Kliffende house on Sylt island, and the Eider Barrage. In the last case, only 10 bags out of 48,000 were damaged despite a high installation rate of 700 bags per day.
Other
– diaperstock, feminine hygiene, and other absorbent materials
– carpet backing, primary and secondary
– composites
– marine sail laminates
– tablecover laminates
– chopped strand mat
– backing/stabilizer for machine embroidery
– packaging where porosity is needed
– Shopping bags
– insulation (fiberglass batting)
– acoustic insulation for appliances, automotive components, and wall-paneling
– pillows, cushions, mattress cores, and upholstery padding
– batting in quilts or comforters
– consumer and medical face masks
– mailing envelopes
– tarps, tenting and transportation (lumber, steel) wrapping
– disposable clothing (foot coverings, coveralls)
– weather resistant house wrap
– cleanroom wipes
– potting material for plants
Manufacturing processes
Nonwovens are typically manufactured by putting small fibers together in the form of a sheet or web (similar to paper on a paper machine), and then binding them either mechanically (as in the case of felt, by interlocking them with serrated needles such that the inter-fiber friction results in a stronger fabric), with an adhesive, or thermally (by applying binder (in the form of powder, paste, or polymer melt) and melting the binder onto the web by increasing temperature).
Staple nonwovens
Staple nonwovens are made in 4 steps. Fibers are first spun, cut to a few centimeters length, and put into bales. The staple fibers are then blended, “opened” in a multistep process, dispersed on a conveyor belt, and spread in a uniform web by a wetlaid, airlaid, or carding/crosslapping process. Wetlaid operations typically use 0.25 to 0.75 in (0.64 to 1.91 cm) long fibers, but sometimes longer if the fiber is stiff or thick. Airlaid processing generally uses 0.5 to 4.0 in (1.3 to 10.2 cm) fibers. Carding operations typically use ~1.5″ (3.8 cm) long fibers. Rayon used to be a common fiber in nonwovens, now greatly replaced by polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene. Fiberglass is wetlaid into mats for use in roofing and shingles. Synthetic fiber blends are wetlaid along with cellulose for single-use fabrics. Staple nonwovens are bonded either thermally or by using resin. Bonding can be throughout the web by resin saturation or overall thermal bonding or in a distinct pattern via resin printing or thermal spot bonding. Conforming with staple fibers usually refers to a combination with melt blowing, often used in high-end textile insulations.
Melt-blown
Melt-blown nonwovens are produced by extruding melted polymer fibers through a spin net or die consisting of up to 40 holes per inch to form long thin fibers which are stretched and cooled by passing hot air over the fibers as they fall from the die. The resultant web is collected into rolls and subsequently converted to finished products. The extremely fine fibers (typically polypropylene) differ from other extrusions, particularly spun bond, in that they have low intrinsic strength but much smaller size offering key properties. Often melt blown is added to spun bond to form SM or SMS webs, which are strong and offer the intrinsic benefits of fine fibers such as fine filtration, low pressure drop as used in face masks or filters and physical benefits such as acoustic insulation as used in dishwashers. One of the largest users of SM and SMS materials is the disposable diaper and feminine care industry.
Spunlaid nonwovens
Spunlaid, also called spunbond, nonwovens are made in one continuous process. Fibers are spun and then directly dispersed into a web by deflectors or can be directed with air streams. This technique leads to faster belt speeds, and cheaper costs. Several variants of this concept are available, such as the REICOFIL machinery. PP spunbonds run faster and at lower temperatures than PET spunbonds, mostly due to the difference in melting points
Spunbond has been combined with melt-blown nonwovens, conforming them into a layered product called SMS (spun-melt-spun). Melt-blown nonwovens have extremely fine fiber diameters but are not strong fabrics. SMS fabrics, made completely from PP are water-repellent and fine enough to serve as disposable fabrics. Melt-blown is often used as filter media, being able to capture very fine particles. Spunlaid is bonded by either resin or thermally. Regarding the bonding of Spunlaid, Rieter has launched a new generation of nonwovens called Spunjet. In fact, Spunjet is the bonding of the Spunlaid filaments thanks to the hydroentanglement.
Flashspun
Flashspun fabrics are created by spraying a dissolved resin into a chamber, where the solvent evaporates.
Air-laid paper
Air-laid paper is a textile-like material categorized as a nonwoven fabric made from wood pulp.[8] Unlike the normal papermaking process, air-laid paper does not use water as the carrying medium for the fiber. Fibers are carried and formed to the structure of paper by air.
Other
Nonwovens can also start with films and fibrillate, serrate or vacuum-form them with patterned holes. Fiberglass nonwovens are of two basic types. Wet laid mat or “glass tissue” use wet-chopped, heavy denier fibers in the 6 to 20 micrometre diameter range. Flame attenuated mats or “batts” use discontinuous fine denier fibers in the 0.1 to 6 range. The latter is similar, though run at much higher temperatures, to melt-blown thermoplastic nonwovens. Wet laid mat is almost always wet resin bonded with a curtain coater, while batts are usually spray bonded with wet or dry resin. An unusual process produces polyethylene fibrils in a Freon-like fluid, forming them into a paper-like product and then calendering them to create Tyvek.
Bonding
Both staple and spunlaid nonwovens would have no mechanical resistance in and of themselves, without the bonding step. Several methods can be used:
– thermal bonding
– use of a heat sealer
– using a large oven for curing
– calendering through heated rollers (called spunbond when combined with spunlaid webs), calenders can be smooth faced for an overall bond or patterned for a softer, more tear resistant bond
– hydro-entanglement: mechanical intertwining of fibers by water jets (called spunlace)
– ultrasonic pattern bonding: used in high-loft or fabric insulation/quilts/bedding
– needlepunching/needlefelting: mechanical intertwining of fibers by needles
– chemical bonding (wetlaid process): use of binders (such as latex emulsion or solution polymers) to chemically join the fibers. A more expensive route uses binder fibers or powders that soften and melt to hold other non-melting fibers together
– one type of cotton staple nonwoven is treated with sodium hydroxide to shrink bond the mat, the caustic causes the cellulose-based fibers to curl and shrink around one another as the bonding technique
– one unusual polyamide(Cerex) is self-bonded with gas-phase acid
– melt-blown: fiber is bonded as air attenuated fibers intertangle with themselves during simultaneous fiber and web formation.

4. SPUNBOND

Spunbond fabrics are produced by depositing extruded, spun filaments onto a collecting belt in a uniform random manner followed by bonding the fibers. The fibers are separated during the web laying process by air jets or electrostatic charges. The collecting surface is usually perforated to prevent the air stream from deflecting and carrying the fibers in an uncontrolled manner. Bonding imparts strength and integrity to the web by applying heated rolls or hot needles to partially melt the polymer and fuse the fibers together. Since molecular orientation increases the melting point, fibers that are not highly drawn can be used as thermal binding fibers. Polyethylene or random ethylene-propylene copolymers are used as low melting bonding sites. Spunbond products are employed in carpet backing, geotextiles, and disposable medical/hygiene products. Since the fabric production is combined with fiber production, the process is generally more economical than when using staple fiber to make nonwoven fabrics.

SPUNBONDING PROCESS

SPINNING AND WEB FORMATION
Spunbonding combines fiber spinning with web formation by placing the bonding device in line with spinning. In some arrangements the web is bonded in a separate step which, at first glance, appears to be less efficient. However, this arrangement is more flexible if more than one type of bonding is applied to the same web.

The spinning process is similar to the production of continuous filament yarns and utilizes similar extruder conditions for a given polymer. Fibers are formed as the molten polymer exits the spinnerets and is quenched by cool air. The objective of the process is to produce a wide web and, therefore, many spinnerets are placed side by side to generate sufficient fibers across the total width. The grouping of spinnerets is often called a block or bank. In commercial production two or more blocks are used in tandem in order to increase the coverage of fibers.
Before deposition on a moving belt or screen, the output of a spinneret usually consists of a hundred or more individual filaments which must be attenuated to orient molecular chains within the fibers to increase fiber strength and decrease extensibility. This is accomplished by rapidly stretching the plastic fibers immediately after exiting the spinneret. In practice the fibers are accelerated either mechanically or pneumatically. In most processes the fibers are pneumatically accelerated in multiple filament bundles; however, other arrangements have been described where a linearly aligned row or rows of individual filaments is pneumatically accelerated.
In traditional textile spinning some orientation of fibers is achieved by winding the filaments at a rate of approximately 3,200 m/min to produce partially oriented yarns (POY). The POYs can be mechanically drawn in a separate step for enhancing strength. In spunbond production filament bundles are partially oriented by pneumatic acceleration speeds of 6,000 m/min or higher. Such high speeds result in partial orientation and high rates of web formation, particularly for lightweight structures (17 g/m2). The formation of wide webs at high speeds is a highly productive operation.
For many applications, partial orientation sufficiently increases strength and decreases extensibility to give a functional fabric (examples: diaper coverstock). However, some applications, such as primary carpet backing, require filaments with very high tensile strength and low degree of extension. For such application, the filaments are drawn over heated rolls with a typical draw ratio of 3.5:1. The filaments are then pneumatically accelerated onto a moving belt or screen. This process is slower, but gives stronger webs.
The web is formed by the pneumatic deposition of the filament bundles onto the moving belt. A pneumatic gun uses high-pressure air to move the filaments through a constricted area of lower pressure, but higher velocity as in a venturi tube. In order for the web to achieve maximum uniformity and cover, individual filaments must be separated before reaching the belt. This is accomplished by inducing an electrostatic charge onto the bundle while under tension and before deposition. The charge may be induced triboelectrically or by applying a high voltage charge. The former is a result of rubbing the filaments against a grounded, conductive surface. The electrostatic charge on the filaments must be at least 30,000 esu/ m2.

The belt is usually made of an electrically grounded conductive wire. Upon deposition, the belt discharges the filaments. This method is simple and reliable. Webs produced by spinning linearly arranged filaments through a so-called slot die eliminating the need for such bundle separating devices.
Filaments are also separated by mechanical or aerodynamic forces. The figure below illustrates a method that utilizes a rotating deflector plane to separate the filaments by depositing them in overlapping loops; suction holds the fiber mass in place.
For some applications, the filaments are laid down randomly with respect to the direction of the lay down belt. In order to achieve a particular characteristic in the final fabric, the directionality of the splayed filament is controlled by traversing the filament bundles mechanically or aerodynamically as they move toward the collecting belt. In the aerodynamic method, alternating pulses of air are supplied on either side of the filaments as they emerge from the pneumatic jet.
By proper arrangement of the spinneret blocks and the jets, lay down can be achieved predominantly in the desired direction. The production of a web with predominantly machine direction and cross-machine direction filament lay down is shown in the figure below. Highly ordered cross-lapped patterns can be generated by oscillating filament bundles, as shown.
If the lay down belt is moving and filaments are being rapidly traversed across this direction of motion, the filaments are being deposited in a zig-zag or sine-wave pattern on the surface of the moving belt. The effect of the traverse motion on the coverage and uniformity of the web has been treated mathematically. The result is that relationships between the collecting belt speed, period of traverse, and the width of filament curtain being traversed determine the appearance of the formed web. The following illustration shows the lay-down for a process where the collecting belt travels a distance equal to the width of the filament curtain x during one complete period of traverse across a belt width y. If the belt speed is Vb and the traverse speed is Vt, the number of layers deposited, z, is calculated by z = [x Vt/y Vb]. If the traverse speed is twice the belt speed and if x and y are equal, a double coverage occurs over all areas of the belt.
BONDING
Many methods can be used to bond the fibers in the spun web. Although most procedures were developed for nonwoven staple fibers, they have been successfully adapted for continuous filaments. These include mechanical needling, thermal bonding, and chemical bonding. The last two may bond large regions (area bonding) or small regions (point bonding) of the web by fusion or adhesion of fibers. Point bonding results in the fusion of fibers at points, with fibers between the point bonds remaining relatively free. Other methods used with staple fiber webs, but not routinely with continuous filament webs include stitch bonding, ultrasonic fusing, and hydraulic entanglement. The last method has the potential to produce very different continuous filament structures, but is more complex and expensive. The choice of a particular bonding technique is dictated mainly by the ultimate fabric applications; occasionally a combination of two or more techniques is employed to achieve bonding.
SPUNBOND PROCESS SYSTEM
A number of spunbond processes can be fitted into one of these three routes with appropriate modification. The following are three successful spinning, drawing, and deposition systems merit a brief discussion.
7.1 “DOCAN SYSTEM”
This route was first developed by the Lurgi Kohle & Mineral-Oltechnik GmbH of Germany in 1970. Many nonwoven companies have licensed this route from the Lurgi Corporation for commercial production.[3] This route (chart 2 below) is based on the melt spinning technique. The melt is forced by spin pumps through special spinnerets having a large number of holes. By suitable choice of extrusion and spinning conditions, desired filament denier is attained. The blow ducts located below individual spinnerets continuously cool the filaments with conditioned air. The force required for filament drawing and orientation is produced by a special aerodynamic system. Each continuous filament bundle is picked up by a draw-off jet operated on high pressure air and passed through a guide tube to a separator which effects separation and fanning of the filaments [8]. Finally, the filament fan leaving the separators is deposited as a random web on a moving sieve belt. The suction below the sieve belt enhances the random lay down of the filaments.
7.2 “REICOFIL” SYSTEM
This route has been developed by Reifenhauser of Germany. Many nonwovens companies have licensed this route from the Reifenhauser GmbH for commercial production. This route (Chart 3 below), is based on the melt spinning technique.The melt is forced by spin pumps through special spinnerets having a large number of holes. The primary blow ducts, located below the spinneret block, continuously cool the filaments with conditioned air. The secondary blow ducts, located below the primary blow ducts, continuously supply the auxiliary room temperature air. Over the line’s entire working width, ventilator-generated underpressure sucks filaments and mixed air down from the spinnerets and cooling chambers. The continuous filaments are sucked through a venturi (high velocity, low pressure zone) to a distributing chamber, which affects fanning and entanglement of the filaments. Finally, the entangled filaments are deposited as a random web on a moving sieve belt. The randomness is imparted by the turbulence in the air stream, but there is a small bias in the machine direction due to some directionality imparted by the moving belt. The suction below the sieve belt enhances the random lay down of the filaments.
7.3 “LUTRAVIL SYSTEM”
This route was first developed by Carl Freudenberg Company of Germany in 1965. This process is proprietary and is not available for commercial licensing. This route (Chart 4), is based on the melt spinning technique. The melt is forced by spin pumps through special spinnerets having a large number of holes. The primary blow ducts, located below the spinneret block, continuously cool the filaments with conditioned air. The secondary blow ducts, located below the primary blow ducts, continuously supply controlled room-temperature air. The filaments are passed through a special device, where high pressure tertiary air draws and orients the filaments. Finally, the filaments are deposited as a random web on a moving sieve belt
CHARACTERISTICS AND PROPERTIES
The spunbonded webs represent a new class of man-made product, with a property combination falling between paper and woven fabric. Spunbonded webs offer a wide range of product characteristics ranging from very light and flexible structure to heavy and stiff structure.
– Random fibrous structure
– Generally the web is white with high opacity per unit area
– Most spunbond webs are layered or shingled structure, the number of layers increases with increasing basis weight
– Basis weights range between 5 and 800 g/m2, typically 10-200 g/ m2
– Fiber diameters range between 1 and 50 um, but the preferred range is between 15 and 35 um
– Web thicknesses range between 0. 1 and 4.0 mm, typically 0.2-1.5mm
– High strength-to-weight ratios compared to other nonwoven, woven, and knitted structures
– High tear strength (for area bonded webs only)
– Planar isotropic properties due to random lay-down of the fibers
– Good fray and crease resistance
– High liquid retention capacity due to high void content
– High in-plane shear resistance, and low drapeability.
Spunbond fabrics are characterized by tensile, tear, and burst strengths, elongation-to-break, weight, thickness, porosity and stability to heat and chemicals. These properties reflect fabric composition and structure. Comparison of generic stress-strain curves of thermally bonded and needlepunched fabrics shows that the shape of the load-strain curves is a function of the freedom of the filaments to move when the fabric is placed under stress.

9. APPLICATIONS
i) Automotive
Today spunbonded webs are used throughout the automobile and in many different applications. One of the major uses of spunbonded webs in automobile is as a backing for tufted automobile floor carpets. The spunbonded webs are also used for trim parts, trunkliners, interior door panel, and seat covers.
ii) Civil Engineering
The civil engineering market segment remains the largest single market spunbond webs, constituting over 25% of the total. Spunbonded civil engineering webs cover a multiple of related uses, such as, erosion control, revestment protection, railroad beds stabilization, canal and reservoir lining protection, highway and airfield black top cracking prevention, roofing, etc.The particular properties of spunbonded webs – which are responsible for this revolution – are chemical and physical stability, high strength/cost ratio, and their unique and highly controllable structure which can be engineered to provide desired properties
iii) Sanitary and medical
The use of spunbond web as a coverstock for diapers and incontinence devices has grown dramatically in the past decade. This is mainly because of the unique structure of spunbond, which helps the skin of the user stay dry and comfortable. Additionally, spunbond webs are cost effective over other conventional nonwovens. Spunbond web, as coverstock, is also widely used in sanitary napkins and to a limited extent in tampons.
In medical applications many traditional materials have been replaced by high performance spunbonded webs. The particular properties of spunbonded webs, which are responsible for medical use, are: breathability; resistance to fluid penetration; lint free structure; sterilizability; and, impermeability to bacteria. Medical applications include: disposable operating room gowns, shoe covers and sterilizable packaging
5. POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE

Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is extensively used in synthetic fibers, beverage, food and other liquid containers, thermoforming applications and engineering resins in combination with glass fiber. The exceptional quality driven White PET Flake offered by NIDHI are the best at the market price and rates. Our Pet Flakes supply is distinguished and unique and is matched in following attributes:-
– Supply a huge quantity of “A” Grade pet flakes on order.
– A careful selection and separation of pet flakes.
– Even provided on a customized specification from a client.
– Provided within manufacturing and environmental norm

6. FLAKES

Production of PET-Flakes Processing steps for better quality
PET-flakes made out of PET bottles have become an important raw material for some polyester processing industries. Fiber mills, manufacturers of thermoforming sheet, producers of strappings purchase important amounts of PET-flakes to replace high priced virgin resin. But the economic interest is not often meeting the quality re-quirements of the industries.
The use is limited by flakes being not clean and pure enough. Costly additonal sort-ing or pelletizing is needed. Sometimes only second class products can be made out of the flakes. Bottle to bottle use or food contact must be limited to a very short per-centage of high quality flakes produced world wide.
This lecture tries to show some steps to flake quality improvement and hopes to open your eyes for even more profitable use of this secondary raw material in the future.

1. The basic treatment

To produce commercial PET-flakes you need little: waste bottles, hand sorting, a conveyor belt, a granulator, a swim-sink tank to remove polyolefins and a dryer. This is the basic system and it works.
Let us look into this basic system in detail: the bales are hand sorted, wrong colours and bot-tles visibly made of PVC are taken out by hand. A granulator (picture 1) with a screen of 12 or 15 mm makes size reduction.

Pict. 1

1

If the machines are of good quality and good function the process ends with flakes that have a commercial value on the international markets and are easily sold. But the price is not very high and the quality is not
very good. The flakes contain residual paper and film coming
from the labels, the flakes contain foreign plastics (especially PVC), the flakes contain metals (especially aluminium). Some glue of the labels is still in the flakes.

2. How to remove paper

There are different ways to remove paper.

2.1 Air sifting

After size reduction the dry material is processed by an air sifter. The very light particles in this material, the paper chips and film chips from the labels are removed by an airstream. The heavier particles, the PET-flakes fall down, do not go with the airstream (picture 4). This separation reduces the paper freight in the PET stream. It makes all following processing easier because only a part of the paper is entering the washing step in the swim-sink tank.

The simple air sifting is not very efficient. Paper attached to heavier PET-particles is not removed, many light and fine PET-particles go with the paper fraction and are lost.

Pict. 5

Pict. 4

2.2

Wet grinding with friction washer
Much more efficient is the wet grinding (Picture 5). The granula-tor is used as a washing ma-chine. The mechanical action
during the cutting, the friction in the cutting chamber of the granulator is an excellent opportunity of adding water and using it for washing during the size reduction proc-ess. The result is always convincing. Washing mills that do a bad job are the ones that do not get enough water. We speak about 10 m3/hr in a closed loop for a 1 ton/hr bottle granulator.

The washing granulator removes dirt from the plastics, removes sugar and other re-maining bottlefill. It destroys paper, the paper fibres and other foreign substances go with the washing water. After the washing granulator a friction washer removes the dirty water from the flakes.
This process step is very efficient but there are some points of disadvantage to be reported: the wet grinder transports most of the paper into the water. It needs a pow-erful water screening and recycling system and creates important amounts of paper sludge in the water recycling system. This sludge has to be taken care of. In many countries it is expensive to dumb.

2.3 Two step size reduction with air sifting in between

You can get all advantages of the wet grinding without the above mentioned prob-lems by combining the three steps dry grinding, air sifting and wet grinding. This is a two step size reduction, the first step dry and with a screen of about 40 mm, the second step wet and with a screen of about 12 mm. And the air sifter removes most of the paper out of the dry fraction before entering the wet grinder.
–    it allows the use of a hog shredder instead of a granulator in the first step, a ma-chine that is much more resistant against foreign particles than a granulator.
-it allows additional mechanical pre-sorting steps between the first and the second size reduction step, before the entry of the washing system
-the wet grinder does not only remove paper, there are all kinds of impurities, sand, sugar, dirt, removed in this early stage of processing.

This all is important if your feedstock is contaminated by metals, stones, glass, paper and polyolefines. First a strong shredder, second additional pre-sorting between and, third, a wet grinder
Our hog shredder (picture 6) is both, a shredder and a granulator. It uses knives and makes a clean cut like a granulator but its knives are blunt, much more resistant against hard foreign particles like stones, glass and metal, like the knives of a shred-der. This reduces the cost of blade wear and downtime for blade change

The additional pre-sorting between the two size reduction steps allows the removal of

heavy and light foreign particles .A heavy fraction like metals by magnets. Glass and
stones by screening machines and other separation equipment. And a light fraction by the use of an air Sifter between the shredder and the washing granulator  removing  paper  and  plastic labels from the pre-cut Polyester bottles.    This    is a cheap    and efficient way to reduce the burden of paper and film introduced into
the following washing part of the recycling line.    And    thus considerably  increasing  the  efficiency of    all    following    washing steps.

3. How to remove foreign plastics

The removal of foreign plastics is possible in different ways.

3.1 before size reduction

-by hand sorting, the most simple way and – in countries without high labour cost – the most economic way

-hand sorting under black light makes it easier to see PVC bottles and to do better hand sorting

-electronic detection by NIR camera and automatic sorting by air jets, the most economic way in high labour cost countries. This method needs very efficient de-baling before, 100% of the bottles must be individual, no remainings of the bales are allowed.

3.2 after size reduction

-the swim sink-tank, that is already part of the basic system removes polyolefines from the plastics that are heavier than water

-a hydrocyclone (picture 7) does the same job but more efficient if higher throughputs (2 t/hr and more) are requested

-electronic detection and automatic sorting of the flakes at the end of the line, a

–    very costly method    Pict. 7

4. How to remove residual film and fibres

Whatever you do in the entry of the line, you can not remove 100% of the paper in this early stage. A certain amount of paper fibres will remain in the flakes through the whole washing and drying process until the end of the line. A small amount, but still paper fibres. This last rest of paper can be reduced considerably by an additional air sifting step. This would remove most of the residual fibres, the fines of PET and most of the residual label film particles.
We use for this purpose a double air sifting device, a combination of a zigzag sifter and a whirl wheel sifter. After the sifter the flakes can be bagged for transport.

A point that is often forgotten: The water circuit, the system to recover the washing water in the line plays an important role in the reduction of the very last amounts of fibre.
Nobody can afford a washing system that uses only fresh water for the process. There will always be a high percentage of washing water running in loops. To main-tain a good washing quality the water in the loop has to be cleaned. Mechanical treatment has to remove some of the contaminations in the water. Screening, sedi-mentation, centrifugal treatment or flocculation have to take place. This treatment has to be careful enough to stop the return of fibres with the return of the water. The pa-per fibres removed in the first steps of the washing line have to be removed from the washing water before it returns into the system.

5. How to remove glue

They main tool to remove glue is a hot wash step (picture 8). Hot water (up to 90 de-grees C) plus detergents dissolve most of the glue. The glue is going with the hot water.
There is a wide variety of glues, more or less nice ones. Somme will swim in water, some will sink. Some will get dissolved in cold water, some in hot water, some only in hot water plus detergents. Some not at all. I have the impression that in Europe the amount of glue is decreasing. For many reasons the soft drink manufacturers reduce the amount of glue used for each label. And shrink labels do not need glue at all.
The    hot    wash    step    is    an

important    economic    factor.    It
needs additional water, additional energy and detergents. It increases the cost of re-
cycling PET bottles considerably.

We use two preheating tanks, both working batchwise. One is filled from the size re-duction step of the line while the other being full is emptied into the turbo washer. The turbo washer is using caustic soda (NaOH) plus special chemical detergents. At the exit of the turbo washer the hot water containing the glue is separated from the flakes by a centrifuge.

The flakes coming out of the turbo washer and its centrifuge still contain a lot of re-sidual water, caustic soda and detergent. To remove this residues the flakes need careful rinsing in fresh water. If this rinsing is not done very careful you will have red, brown or yellow colour in the flakes after the first melting.

The hot water with caustic soda needs its own, separate water circuit. The glue has to be removed from the water, the fines have to be taken out, the refill of caustic soda and detergents has to be done.

The water treatment in the hot water circuit is one of the key elements in a hot wash line. If it is not well done there will be no high quality flakes produced any more after one or two hours of operation. Unpleasant elements like glue or fines will accumulate in the water. No rinsing device is able to remove all of it. The flakes remain dirty. This point is so important that some manufacturers of hot wash lines do not use recycled water at all. They use 100% of fresh water for the hot wash step. But this makes tre-mendous energy costs for normal users. If you have cheap heating power, this would work best

7. RECYCLED PET

Plastic recycling refers to a process in which the discarded plastic is converted into reusable form. Discarded plastic can be rigid such as bottles, and containers; or non-rigid such as films, and wrappers. Plastic recycling market is segmented on resin type such as PET. Polyethylene terephthalate abbreviated PET, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and are used in fibers for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, and thermoforming for manufacturing
As per Transparency Market Research, the prime uses for recycled PET are polyester fiber, strapping, and non-food containers. Most thermoplastics can be recycled; PET bottle recycling is more applied than many other plastic applications because exclusive use of PET for widely used carbonated soft drink and water bottling. Recycling of thermoplastic can undergo two processes. First one includes the recycling back to the initial raw materials where the structure of the polymer is completely destroyed; and the other process includes the recycling where the original polymer properties are being maintained.

The recycling of thermoplastics is sustainable initiative. Large amounts of plastics wastes are degrading environment, hence an initiative for cleaning and sorting the wastes is of utmost use. In thermoplastics recycling industry, the recycling of the bottles is main part, which are used in all kinds of liquid packaging like water, juices, beer, sauces, detergents, household chemicals, and carbonated soft drinks. Bottles are easy to differentiate because of consistency and shape. Bottles separate from waste plastic streams either by automatic or by hand-sorting processes.

The established polyester recycling industry consists of three major sections; waste logistics: PET bottle collection and waste separation, flake production: production of clean PET bottle flakes, and flake processing: conversion of flakes to final product. The first step includes the bottle waste with a PET content greater than 90. In the second step, the collected bottles are transformed to clean bottle flakes. This step can be complicated depending on required final flake quality. During the third step, bottle flakes are processed to any kind of products like film, bottles, fiber, or filament.

Recycling Polyester staple Fiber  is prominent segment in recycling PET and it has been projected that the RPSF is going to be the fiber of the future in the entire textile industry. It is formed by re-melting the thermoplastic PET bottles and then thick material is pressed leaving them as filaments. Filaments can be used as endless threads and cut into length-defined fibers for spinning. After weaving, the fabric is transformed into garment, such as pullovers, jackets or sweatshirts. The recycled thread or yarn can be used either alone or together with other fibers to create strong, durable and rough products, such as jackets, coat, shoes, bags, hats and accessories.

Factors like demand in light weighting vehicles, and packaging industry, is expected to drive the market during the forecasted period. On the other hand, factors like stringent government regulations, environmental issues would limit the growth of the market. Polypropylene manufacturers are shifting their emphasis from synthetic to bio-based polypropylene as a result of increase in demand for the latter.
On the basis of region, the global market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, the Middle East and Africa, and Latin America. Of these regions, Asia Pacific is expected to dominant in the global market throughout the forecast period. Asia Pacific is engaged in activities such as converting the plastic into recycled resins for further applications and cheap labor and lenient governmental policies have kept the region at the forefront. Europe is also expected to show steady growth in the global market due to stringent laws pertaining to the use of plastic in the region. The region is recycling plastic wastes ever year due to ban on dumping plastic in landfills. The increasing awareness about environment protection is also anticipated to boost the Europe plastic recycling market.

8. RECYCLED POLYESTER STAPLE FIBER (PSF)

Recycled Polyester Staple Fiber (PSF) is a synthetic fiber made from used PET bottles. These fibers are also used for making geotextile and spinning yarn. Since PET bottles are basically non-biodegradable, it was very challenging to settle them. Therefore, a new technology has developed which helps in the consumption of PET bottles for the production of artificial fiber such as recycled polyester staple fiber. This polyester finds wide spread application in spinning to make spun yarn which is later knitted or woven in fabric.
Re-using of PET / Polyester wastes and utilized PET bottles is perfect job for keeping up cleanliness of the environment. Since there is increasing in textile industry, increasing demand for non-woven fabric and increasing awareness of consumers about recycled PSF and durable textiles is the primary factor in the development of recycled polyester staple fiber market.
The major uses of recycled PET are polyester fiber, strapping and non-food containers. Most thermoplastic can be recycled. PET bottle recycling is more applicable than many other plastic applications because the exclusive use of PET is widely used for carbonated soft drinks and water bottles. The recycling of thermoplastic can pass through two processes. In the past, recycling involves initial raw material where the composition of the polymer is completely destroyed, and the other process involves recycling where the original polymer properties are being maintained.
Recycling of thermoplastic is a permanent initiative. Large amounts of plastic waste are diminishing the environment day by day, so there is an excessive use of initiative for cleaning and sorting of wastes. In Thermoplastic Recycling Industry, the recycling of bottles is the major part which is used in all types of liquid packaging such as water, juice, sauce, detergent, domestic chemicals and carbonated soft drinks. Separation of bottles is very easy due to stability and size. Bottles are separated from waste streams by automated or manual sorting processes.
Recycled Polyester Staple Fiber (RPSF) recycling is a major segment in PET and it has been estimated that RPSF is going to become a future fiber in the entire Textile Industry. This is produced by melting the Thermoplastic PET bottles again and again so that thick material can be obtained in the form of filaments. Filaments can be used as an endless thread and length-defined fiber cut for spinning. After knitting, the fabric is turned into the fabric, such as pullover, jacket or sweatshirt.

9. SPUNBOND POLYESTER

Spunbond polyester fabrics typically have more uniform properties than other structures of nonwoven. They are produced using medium to coarse dpf continous filament fibers. Spunbond polyester fabrics are supplied in widths ranging from 1” to 204” with basis weights ranging from 12 gsm to over 300 gsm.
Common characteristics include:

– excellent thermal properties
– superior moldabilty
– very strong
– high dimensional stability
– inherently UV stable
– good permeability

10. R-PET

Economic and population growth and industrialization in the world together cause an increase in the amount of waste. As a consequence of all these, while the more intensive use of natural resources is inevitable, the wastes created by the ever-increasing consumption tendency have reached the huge amounts that threaten the environment and human health due to their quantity and harmful contents. For this purpose, waste policies should be developed and waste management studies should also be carried out, especially in the field of recycling these wastes, because of long decomposition time of these wastes in the environment causing
landfill problem

Waste management system enables collection, categorization, reduction, recycling, and reuse of waste. At present, countries’intensive efforts on waste management are striking. Waste management, which has an important place among environmental protection policies, should prevent the rapid depletion of natural resources and minimize the potential risks of the wastes to the environment and human health.

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a versatile material and has a wide range of applications such as clothing, acoustic panels, sportswear, agricultural nets, nonwovens, sheets and films, straps, engineering resins, food and beverage bottles, bottles, packaging materials, reinforce-ment in building construction, etc. Among these products, bottle grade PET is generally used for water and beverage packaging due to its lightweight, inexpensive price, resistance to micro-organisms, and light. Bottles of water, soft drinks, and other beverages constitute 83–84% of global PET resin requirement. Furthermore, the projected demand for PET packaging materials is forecasted to reach 20 million tons by 2019 with an annual increase of 4.6%.. With the widespread application of PET, large quantities of PET waste were inevitably created.

PET has no side effects on the human body and does not pose a direct threat to the environment. On the other hand, it is regarded as a harmful material because of its high volumetric fraction in the waste stream and high resistance to atmospheric and biological agents. Due to poor biodegradation of PET, it is difficult to remove waste. It is possible to suggest two acceptable solutions; burning and recycling. Burning method arises releasing toxic fumes into the atmosphere, causing environmental pollution and health risks. As an acceptable
solution, the recycling of PET bottles enables the conservation of natural sources such as fossil fuels and energy, solving landfill problem, reducing greenhouse gas emission, lowering carbon footprint, creating new business opportunities as well as a contribution to the national economy. In addition, recycling processes are the best way to economically reduce PET waste. With both reduced energy costs and raw material costs, recycling fiber production has become a form of production with a significant economic advantage. Two forms of PET bottle recycling can be distinguished as a closed loop and open loop recycling. Closed loop recycling or bottle-to-bottle refers to a product system that recycles post-consumer waste within the same system. Open loop recycling denotes the utilization of recycled material in another product system such as bottle-to-fiber recycling. Figure 1 displays the process of bottle-to-fiber recycling.

PET flakes are obtained from PET bottle wastes after a series of procedures such as sorting, washing, grinding, drying, etc.. Most of the recycled PET flakes produced worldwide are utilized for staple fiber applications in textile sector. Because of environmental reasons initially, the recycling of PET bottles to textile fibers has now become commercially attractive. Furthermore, as petroleum prices increase, recycling of PET becomes more financially feasible rather than a virgin PET. It is expected that the recycling of the PET bottle will be estimated up to annually 13 million tons in 2018 and up to 15 million tons in 2020.

The fiber obtained from PET flakes has dominant proportion among end users as 44% of total market share in 2016. These fiber materials are generally called as recycled PET (r-PET) and especially used in carpets, blankets, clothing, and other textile applications products from PET bottle wastes, and depolymerization of PET by hydrolysis, methanolysis, and glycolysis is used to re-use regenerated raw materials as monomers for new polymerization processes. The chemical recycling technique produces superior quality materials, but this method is highly labor and power-intensive, so it requires high processing costs.The mechanical recycling method involves sorting and separation of waste, washing for removal of dirt and contaminants, grinding in order to obtain flakes, cleaning, separating, dehydrating, drying, and re-melting. Mechanical recycling is preferred due to a significant reduction in processing costs, global warming potential, nonrenewable energy use, abiotic exhaustion, acidification, eutrophication, human toxicity, and
water toxicity. As such, studies on the use of r-PET staple fiber in the field of textile applications have established the focus of researchers. Yüksekkaya et al. investigated the properties of yarns and knitted fabrics produced by virgin PET and r-PET and cotton fibers as virgin and recycled.

Yarns were produced as 100% virgin, 100% recycled, and 50%/50% virgin/recycled proportion by using rotor spinning machine. They stated that yarns produced from recycled fibers had etter yarn unevenness, lower number of yarn imperfections, and better yarn quality index alue. In addition, yarn tensile strength and knitted fabric burst strength were found to be lower for recycled yarns and fabrics when compared to virgin ones

Another study was conducted on the performance and durability of woven fabrics made from r-PET with different ratios by Mari and Shinji. Commercially available plain and twill woven
samples were collected and categorized according to the recycling content. They observed that more fatigue action occurred for fabrics including r-PET than virgin PET after washing. It was found that fabrics with r-PET exhibited higher stiffness with increasing r-PET content.

Rajamanickam and Vasudevan studied on the antibacterial activities of 19.7 tex ring spun yarns including lyocell and r-PET at different blending ratios (100% r-PET, 70%/30%, 50%/50% lyocell/r-PET, and 100% lyocell). Before the antibacterial activities, yarns were treated with chitosan finish. In this study, it was suggested that the yarns can be used as hospital textiles and blended yar samples exhibited better antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, “blends of lyocell & r-PET yarns”were found to be suitable in the field of hospital textiles due to having
higher tenacity and elongation property.

11. R-PET FIBERS

– R-PET fibers are produced by melt spinning process of the PET flakes which obtained from recycled PET wastes. These fibers have economic advantages due to the lower raw material cost. They also have lower energy consumption in production stage and low carbon emission. Because of these factors, it can be said that r-PET fibers are environmentally friendly fibers. However, in mechanical cycling method, PET flakes include too much contamination and during re-heating process molecular weight of the polymer changes. So, it is quite clear that pure PET fibers and recycled PET fibers have different properties.

–     The aim of this study to determine the advantage of usage r-PET fibers which     have different     features from PET fibers, on the product quality in textile and apparel industry without taking     into     consideration of the cost and environmental factors. r-PET fibers produced low viscosity     polymer have    different crystalline/amorphous region ratio and there are differences in fiber     matrix     because of     contamination. So, it is thought that, using of r-PET fibers in     blending could create advantages for     fiber/fiber cohesion and covering capacity. From     this point of view, knitted fabrics were produced     from r-PET and r-PET     blended with     PET and cotton yarns and comparative investigations for fabric     properties were done

– As with virgin PET, recycled PET (rPET) can be used to make many new products, including polyester staple fibre or filament used for apparel (clothing), home textiles (duvets, pillows, carpeting), automotive parts (carpets, sound insulation, boot linings, seat covers) and industrial end-use items (geotextiles and roof insulation), and new PET packaging and bottles for both food and non-food products. It is generally blended in a ratio of virgin to recycled, depending on the application required.

– Recycled PET (rPET) is used for numerous applications. From reusable carry bags to roof insulation, there are recycled plastics all around us.
–     Carpet companies use recycled fibre to make polyester carpets. PET is spun into fibre filling for     pillows and quilts. Fibre is also used to make clothing, jackets and even polar fleeces. PET     bottles may even reappear in the form of non-woven automotive carpets.
–     Retailers use rPET in pillows, duvets and reusable shopping bags; automotive manufacturers     use rPET in boot linings and carpets; architects and designers use rPET in the form of roof     insulation; clothing designers use rPET in the manufacture of clothing – like jeans, fleece     jackets, and sophisticated sportswear; engineers use rPET in industrial applications, such as     strapping, geotextiles for buildings, dams, power stations and tunnels; brand owners use rPET     as a blend in new bottles.
–     Recycled PET products are functional, cost-effective and often stylish. It seems like designers     are realising the potential of how to make a business out of this sustainable material.

12. RECYCLED PET

RPET stands for recycled polyethylene terephthalate, or recycled PET. PET is a strong, durable and recyclable material that is used for soda bottles, water bottles and food jars, while RPET can be made into such products as blankets, insulation, car parts, shoes and more. RPET is produced by collecting, sorting and recycling PET, then refining the material into flakes that can be turned into new products. Using RPET as an alternative to PVC is a huge step forward on the path toward a greener, safer and cleaner future.

PET can be recycled into many new products.

Recycled PET (RPET) is a viable alternative to virgin PET and can be used in multiple applications. Over the last several years, RPET has been successfully used in food packaging applications. RPET produced by Verdeco Recycling and by other manufacturers can be found in beverage bottles and food packages on the shelves of stores and supermarkets all across America.

When companies choose to use rPET in their products, they provide a market for recycled plastics. Like any business, recycling facilities have to make money–if they’re not turning a profit from the materials they collect, they’ll stop collecting them. When consumers purchase products made with recycled content, they’re sending a message to companies that they value their sustainability efforts! By creating awareness and demand for recycled products, we help solidify recycling programs and recycled goods as valuable pieces in the production process.

Recycling plastics also helps decrease the amount of plastic waste that enters landfills. Plastics in landfills take thousands of years to break down, and can leach toxic chemicals into the Earth. These chemicals can make their way into groundwater reserves, endangering both humans and animals. Plastics that “break down”, only do so into smaller pieces of plastic, which are still harmful to the ecosystems they may end up in.
Recycling not only provides a better option than the landfill, it also has the ability to greatly decrease our resource extraction. Over 60% of first-time PET production is used to create polyester textiles. By using PET that has already been in circulation, we’re offsetting the amount of new PET that needs to be created.

PET material in good condition can be used to create products of equal value, but it’s difficult for recycling facilities to produce pristine, well sorted plastics. This means that a lot of recycled plastic can’t create products of the same quality. Instead, many of these plastics are downcycled (used to create products of lesser value). To make the cut, producers of higher quality products like food-grade containers and bottles often still turn to creating new PET.

13. STRUCTURE OD SPUNBOND

The structure of spunbonded nonwovens is characterized by a filament orientation distribution function that is a length-weighted density. This density was defined according to the `Equivalent Pore Model’ and was experimentally determined by an optical method. The method permits a description of the anisotropy and the main direction of the fibrous network on both faces of the webs. Despite the lesser thickness, the spunbonded nonwovens presented a different organization of the filaments on the two faces. The conveyor face was more anisotropic than the upper one. The filament lay down process in the Perfobond technology was analyzed. The combined action of the velocities of the filaments, of the belt and of the air suction, influenced the structure, causing two important effects: a rotation of the filaments and a shear stress. The air suction velocity appears to be the most important variable, which controls the action of the belt.

Spunbond fabrics are produced by depositing extruded, spun filaments onto a collecting belt in a uniform random manner followed by bonding the fibers. The fibers are separated during the web laying process by air jets or electrostatic charges. The collecting surface is usually perforated to prevent the air stream from deflecting and carrying the fibers in an uncontrolled manner. Bonding imparts strength and integrity to the web by applying heated rolls or hot needles to partially melt the polymer and fuse the fibers together. Since molecular orientation increases the melting point, fibers that are not highly drawn can be used as thermal binding fibers. Polyethylene or random ethylene-propylene copolymers are used as low melting bonding sites. Spunbond products are employed in carpet backing, geotextiles, and disposable medical/hygiene products. Since the fabric production is combined with fiber production, the process is generally more economical than when using staple fiber to make nonwoven fabrics

The spunbonded webs represent a new class of man-made product, with a property combination falling between paper and woven fabric. Spunbonded webs offer a wide range of product characteristics ranging from very light and flexible structure to heavy and stiff structure.
· Random fibrous structure
· Generally the web is white with high opacity per unit area
· Most spunbond webs are layered or shingled structure, the number of layers increases with increasing basis weight
· Basis weights range between 5 and 800 g/m2, typically 10-200 g/ m2
· Fiber diameters range between 1 and 50 um, but the preferred range is between 15 and 35 um
· Web thicknesses range between 0. 1 and 4.0 mm, typically 0.2-1.5mm
· High strength-to-weight ratios compared to other nonwoven, woven, and knitted structures
· High tear strength (for area bonded webs only)
· Planar isotropic properties due to random lay-down of the fibers
· Good fray and crease resistance
· High liquid retention capacity due to high void content
· High in-plane shear resistance, and low drapeability.

Spunbond fabrics are characterized by tensile, tear, and burst strengths, elongation-to-break, weight, thickness, porosity and stability to heat and chemicals. These properties reflect fabric composition and structure. Comparison of generic stress strain curves of thermally bonded and needlepunched fabrics shows that the shape of the load-strain curves is a function of the freedom of the filaments to move when the fabric is placed under stress.

Application:

a) Automotive
Today spunbonded webs are used throughout the automobile and in many different applications. One of the major uses of spunbonded webs in automobile is as a backing for tufted automobile floor carpets.The spunbonded webs are also used for trim parts, trunkliners, interior door panel, and seat covers.

b) Civil Engineering
The civil engineering market segment remains the largest single market spunbond webs, constituting over 25% of the total. Spunbonded civil engineering webs cover a multiple of related uses, such as, erosion control, revestment protection, railroad beds stabilization, canal and reservoir lining protection, highway and airfield black top cracking prevention, roofing, etc. The particular properties of , spunbonded webs – which are responsible for this revolution – are chemical and physical stability, high strength/cost ratio, and their unique and highly controllable structure which can be engineered to provide desired properties

c) Sanitary and medical
The use of spunbond web as a coverstock for diapers and incontinence devices has grown dramatically in the past decade. This is mainly because of the unique structure of spunbond, which helps the skin of the user stay dry and comfortable.  Additionally, spunbond webs are cost effective over other conventional nonwovens. Spunbond web, as coverstock, is also widely used in sanitary napkins and to a limited extent in tampons. In medical applications many traditional materials have been replaced by high performance spunbonded webs. The particular properties of spunbonded webs, which are responsible for medical use, are: breathability; resistance to fluid penetration; lint free structure; sterilizability; and, impermeability to bacteria. Medical applications include: disposable operating room gowns, shoe covers and sterilizable packaging

d) Packaging
Spunbonded fabrics are widely used as packaging material where paper products and plastic films are not satisfactory. The examples include: metal-core wrap, medical sterile packaging, floppy disk liners, high performance envelopes and stationery products.

1.POLYESTER

– Polyester is used in a number of commercial spunbond products and offers certain advantages over polypropylene, although it is more expensive. Unlike polypropylene, polyester scrap is not readily recycled in spunbond manufacturing. Tensile strength, modulus, and heat stability of polyester fabrics are superior to those of polypropylene fabrics. Polyester fabrics are easily dyed and printed with conventional equipment.
– Polyesters are one of the most important and most used polycondensation polymers and are derived from dicarboxylic acids (sometimes other acid types) and diols. Polyester is a polymer
class containing ester functional group on polymeric main chain. Polyester term is usually used
for polyethylene terephthalate (PET), despite the numerous polyester forms are present.
Recent researches have indicated that using of polyester polymer processed into various
forms, e.g., fibers, filament, fabric, composites, resins, dendrimers, films, sheets, and mem-
branes in different fields, such as textile, automotive, medical, electronic, and construction
applications, aracts worldwide interest. Polyester is also extensively used as packaging
materials, such as bottle/containers. The polymerization of polyester could be carried out as
polycondensation, ring-opening polymerization, and polyaddition processes. Furthermore,
polyester could be recycled by physical (mechanical) or chemical (hydrolysis, methanolysis,
and glycolysis reactions) methods.

Recycled polyester could be used for packaging, construction parts, pipes, tanks, geotextiles,
nonwoven, carpets, etc. It is expected to run out of crude oil reserves at World in 2043. Thus,
recycling of petroleum-based polymers is crucial. In addition, eectively recycling of polyes-
ter will give rise to lessen carbon dioxide emission and thus global warming.
Polyester can be classifi ed into two groups: thermoplastic polyesters and thermoset     (unsaturated polyester, polyester resin) polyesters. Thermoplastic polymers could be categorized     as linear aromatic polyesters (fiber- and film-forming polyesters), elastomers (block     copolyesters), liquid crystal polyester, engineering plastics, aliphatic polyesters, and     poly(hydroxyl alkanoates)

Thermoset polyesters (unsaturated polyester)

Unsaturated polyester resins (UPRs) are used in civil/structural engineering applications,
ships materials, composites, construction, piping, storage tanks, protective coatings, and auto-
motive paints, which required high strength, ductility properties, andfire resistance.
The composite materials composed of unsaturated polyester are produced by some meth-
ods, such as lay-up method, pultrusion, filament winding, vacuum bagging and autoclave
curing, and liquid molding. Unsaturated polyester resins have advantages due to their
chemical resistance, electrical properties, rapid curing, and relatively low prices for using
the application areas. However, UPRs are extremely ammable and produce toxic smoke
during combustion. Some filler and additives such as alumina trihydrate (ATH), magnesium
hydroxide, nickel hydroxide, molybdenum disulphide, nanoclay, antimony oxide, gypsum
particles, graphene, and carbon nanotube in the resins and some modifications of the resins
with halogens such as bromine or phenolic resin could be used to improve fibre resistance of
the composites. Furthermore, their strength properties were limited in comparison with other thermosetting resins. Fiber-reinforced unsaturated polyesters (UPs) and filler
containing UPs were widely investigated to surpass these deficiencies. Applications of
unsaturated polyester resins were illustrated in Figure 1.

Thermoplastic polyesters
Polyester is the most produced thermoplastic polymer and has many application fields such
as especially textile fibers and bottles. Polyester used in textiles is generally polyethylene tere-
phthalate (PET), whose well-known properties are chemical inertness, lightness, good pro-cessability, high-melting point, high tenacity, and low cost. Furthermore, recycling of polyester boles for sustainable textiles recently draws aention in the world and provides diverting waste as bottles from landfills, reducing environmental pollution and reducing car-bon footprint and save energy compared to produce virgin polyester. The bottle coul be recycled by mechanical and chemical processes. Chemical process is based on the depo-lymerization of polyester to oligomers or monomers by chemical reaction, while mechanical process is carried out with melting and re-extruding to make fibe

15. WHAT IS POLYESTER STAPLE FIBER

What is polyester staple fiber, polyester staple fiber is polyester (polyethylene terephthalate, PET) polymerized by PTA and MEG and then spun into filaments after cutting the fiber. PET is rice-like and has a variety of varieties. 75% is used for polyester fiber for chemical fiber, and polyester staple fiber and polyester filament are manufactured according to the requirements of the textile industry.
The characteristics of polyester staple fiber

Strength: The strength of polyester fiber is nearly 1 times higher than that of cotton and 3 times higher than wool, so the polyester fabric is strong and durable.
Heat resistance: It can be used at 70~1700C. It is the best heat resistance and thermal stability in synthetic fiber.
Elasticity: The elasticity of polyester is close to that of wool, and its wrinkle resistance is higher than other fibers. The fabric does not wrinkle and is good in keeping.

Abrasion Resistance: The abrasion resistance of polyester is second only to nylon, ranking second in synthetic fibers.
Water Absorption: Polyester has low moisture regain and good insulation properties, but due to low water absorption, the static electricity generated by friction is large and the dyeing performance is poor.
The use of polyester staple fiber

The products are mainly used in the cotton spinning industry. They are individually spun or blended with cotton, viscose, hemp, wool, vinylon, etc. The resulting yarns are mainly used for apparel weaving, and can also be used for home-improvement fabrics, packaging fabrics, and fillings. Warm materials.

16. PSF

Polyester Staple Fibre (PSF) has emerged as the fastest-growing fibre amongst all types of manufactured fibres. Polyesters are made by polymerisation of Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) and Mono Ethylene Glycol (MEG). The polymer thus obtained is melt spun and the bundle of continuous filaments obtained by melt spinning is called tow. The tow is subjected to further processes like drawing, crimping, spin finish application and then cut into fixed lengths to get cut fibres almost equal in length to cotton fibres. These cut fibres are known as PSF.

Technology
– Constant on-line checks maintain consistent quality.
– Superior spin-finish application ensures smoother working of fibre during spinning.
– Merge number remains consistent over longer periods.
– Standard bale weight is maintained.

17. MARKET POLYESTER

The global polyester staple fiber market size was 15,519.7 kilotons in 2016. Rising demand for sustainable textiles coupled with growing application industries in Asia Pacific is expected to drive the market over the forecast period.
Polyester staple fiber is one of the coherent parts of the globally rising textile industry. It is a highly versatile man-made fiber and possesses unique properties that supplement its demand in several application areas including fiber filling, automotive, textiles, filtration, and home furnishing. The product demand is expected to increase in the near future owing to its qualities, thereby driving the industry growth.

Rising demand for recycled polyester staple fiber is one of the major growth drivers in the global market. Consumers are increasingly opting for sustainable textiles, which are made from recycled materials. Growing awareness regarding environmental protection is a major factor boosting the demand for sustainable textiles. The availability of sustainable clothing in a wide range of stylish designs, bright colors, and attractive prints is further supplementing the product demand.
Manufacturers operating in the global polyester staple fiber market must adhere to several legal as well political regulations prevalent in the respective regions. The regulations are anticipated to restrain market growth over the forecast period. In June 2016, the government of Indonesia imposed anti-dumping duties on the import of polyester staple fiber from Taiwan, China, and India. The amount of anti-dumping duty imposed on India is between 5.82% and 16.67%, 28.47% for Taiwan, and between 13% and 16.10% for China. Huge price depressions as well as price suppressions prevailed on imports of polyester staple fiber from China in Indonesia. The rise in the production capacity of polyester staple fiber in China, Taiwan, and India are indicative of an oversupply in these countries.
Product Insights
Solid polyester staple fiber was the largest product segment in 2016. Growing textile manufacturing industry, particularly in the emerging economies of Asia Pacific, is expected to drive the market over the next eight years. Advantageous properties of PSF over cotton, its substitute, act as one of the key factors driving its demand.
Hollow polyester fiber was the second-largest product segment in 2016 and is expected to ascend at a substantial growth rate over the forecast period. It has a wide range of applications in construction industry. It is used in concrete to fill up cracks as well as to enhance the overall quality of walls, tanks, and other pre-casted products such as tiles, manhole covers, and blocks. Thus, the demand for fiber is supplemented by the growth of the global construction industry. Rising construction spending due to rapid urbanization, growing population, and increasing government investments is anticipated to contribute to market growth over the forecast period.
Origin Insights
Virgin fiber dominates the overall polyester staple fiber market. It is made up of PTA & MEG or PET chips and is more expensive and hygienic as compared to other types of PSF derived from various origins. It has a wide range of applications in apparel and home furnishing segments owing to its premium quality.
Recycled polyester staple fiber is anticipated to witness the fastest growth over the forecast period. It is often used for fiber filling application in products such as toys and pillows. Producers such as Eco Intelligent Polyester are consistently engaged in recycling old polyester clothing as well as plastic bottles to create new polyester.
Application Insights
The global demand for apparel has witnessed a paradigm shift due to changing consumer preferences. Apparel was the largest application segment and accounted for over 45.5% of the total revenue share in 2016.

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Apparel segment includes activewear, sportswear, and intimate wear. As textile technology is evolving, consumers are increasingly opting for sustainable fashion, which refers to apparels manufactured from polyester staple fiber. It is the most suitable alternative to cotton in comparison to other fibers as it is cheaper, thinner, and available in several designs & colors. Several varieties of polyester staple fibers, which are hi-tech in nature, are available with antimicrobial properties that offer advanced protection against bad odor and other secondary infections. These advanced qualities are further contributing to the overall product demand.
Apparel was followed by home furnishing segment in 2016. Furnishing industry is one of the major application areas for polyester staple fiber. It is used in several home furnishing applications including pillows, bedsheets, sofas, carpets, and rugs. Its applications in furnishing have increased significantly over the past few years as it is more affordable than other fibers. A wide range of PSF is available in the market in terms of color, texture, and fabric to serve varied furnishing requirements. The demand for specialty mattresses is witnessing considerable growth due to increasing consumer preferences for environment-friendly products.
Regional Insights
Asia Pacific was the leading regional market in 2016 and accounted for 77.6% of the total revenue share. Emerging economies in the region including India, China, South Korea, and Taiwan have been witnessing strong economic growth. Increasing population and improved standards of living have spurred product demand in the region.
Growing exports from Asian countries and rising product demand in application industries are contributing to the demand for PSF in Europe. Abundant availability of raw materials, such as PET bottle flakes, is also expected to drive product demand over the forecast period.
Competitive Insights
Key market participants include Toray Chemical Korea, Inc., W. Barnet GmbH & Co. KG, Alpek, S.A.B. de C.V., Reliance Industries Limited, Diuou Fibre (M) Sdn Bhd., Huvis Corporation, Indorama Corporation, Xinda Corp., China National Petroleum Corporation, Bombay Dyeing, PetroVietnam Petrochemical, and Textile Fiber Joint Stock Company.

18. CLASSIFIED PSF

Polyester Staple Fibre is a kind of Polyester Fibre made directly from PTA & MEG, or PET Chips, or from Recycled PET Bottle Flakes. PSF made from PTA & MEG or PET Chips is known as Virgin PSF and PSF made from Recycled PET Flakes is called Recycled PSF. 100% virgin PSF is usually more hygienic and more expensive than recycled PSF. Polyester Staple Fibre is widely used in spinning, weaving non-woven.PSF is mainly used for fibre fillings in pillows and sofas. It is also used widely in spinning to make Polyester Spun Yarn which is then knitted or weaved into fabrics.
PSF is mainly classified as Solid& Hollow Polyester staple fibre. Hollow PSF can be Conjugated, Siliconized, and have Slick and Dry PSF. These properties are usually represented as HSC (Hollow Conjugated Siliconized), HCNS (Hollow Conjugate Non-Siliconized), and Slick PSF that has a smooth finish. Depending on the lustre, PSF can be classified as Semi Dull and Bright. By mixing colour master-batch, dope dyed PSF can also be obtained in Optical White, Black, and several other colours.

19. CHARACTERISTICS OS PSF

Staple fiber wins over wool since it is strong, can withstand repetitive movement, and is resistant to stretching, shrinking, or mildew. PSF can easily retain heat, and is resilient when wet or dry. As PSF is hydrophobic, it can be used in wet or damp environments. Moreover, when molded into any shape, PSF does not wrinkle but present insulating properties.
PSF Uses:
– Domestic Uses
– Filling, stuffing and padding in
– Cushions
– Pillows
– Quilts
– Toys
– Jackets
– Mattress
– Industrial Uses
– Making of FELTS
– Making non woven and woven carpets
– Mixing with cotton and wool in making yarn of any colour
– Making of sheets of various GSM which are used for padding in quilts, jackets etc.
PSF – Polyester Staple Fibre
Polyester staple fiber is a material produced from synthetic chemical compounds with a variety of uses in the textile, automotive and furniture industries. The phrase “staple fiber” often refers to a kind of natural fiber such as cotton or wool, which can be twisted to form yarn. In 1935, the DuPont Chemical Company created polyester, and the fiber from the chemical compound was strong enough to be twisted into yarn similar to natural fibers
Polyester has many industrial applications because of its special characteristics. Polyester staple fiber resists wrinkles, mildew, general surface damage and most chemicals. This material also holds creases and pleats well, as long as they have been heat-set first.
Polyester Staple Fibre (PSF) has emerged as the fastest-growing fibre amongst all types of manufactured fibres. Polyesters are made by polymerisation of Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) and Mono Ethylene Glycol (MEG). The polymer thus obtained is melt spun and the bundle of continuous filaments obtained by melt spinning is called tow. The tow is subjected to further processes like drawing, crimping, spin finish application and then cut into fixed lengths to get cut fibres almost equal in length to cotton fibres. These cut fibres are known as PSF.
Today over 70-75% of polyester is produced by CP (continuous polymerisation) process using PTA (purified Terephthalic Acid) and MEG. The old process is called Batch process using DMT and MEG. Catalysts like 5b3O3 (Antimony Trioxide) are used to start and control the reaction. TiO2 (Titanium di oxide) is added to make the polyester fibre / filament dull. Spin finishes are added at melt spinning and draw machine to provide static protection and have cohesion and certain frictional properties to enable fibre get processed through textile spinning machinery without any problem. Major Licensors of technology for manufacturing PSF are Invista, EMS-INVENTA, Zimmer AG, and Noyvalesina.
Global PSF capacity in 2011 was 17 MMT and is expected to touch 26 MMT in 2016. In 2011 India had a total capacity of 1334 KTA which is expected to touch 2000 KTA in 2016. And consumption is expected to increase from 1214 KTA in 2011 to 1600 KTA. The key players manufacturing PSF include Reliance Industries, Indo Rama and JCT Fibre. Reliance Industries is the leading player with almost 64% of total production in the industry. Reliance industries Ltd has planned capacity expansion and is expected to increase the capacity of 700 KTA in 2011 to 1300 KTA. Among the man-made fibres, the production of PSF has shown a growth of 3.1 percent during the first four years of the Eleventh Plan period. However, it showed a decline 10 of 14.7 per cent in the year 2008-09. Industry has projected growth in the production of PSF by 7.78 percent during the Twelfth Plan period.
Polyester staple fibers work well in home furnishings as well, which includes carpets, upholstery, curtains and sheets. Polyester fiberfill is often used inside pillows and furniture as stuffing. Hoses, ropes and nets, thread, tire cord and sails on ships are all made with polyester fibers, which are regularly combined with other materials to add new properties.
Polyester Staple Fibre (PSF) is kind of Polyester Fibre made directly from PTA & MEG or PET Chips or from Recycled PET Bottle Flakes. PSF made from PTA & MEG or PET Chips is known as Virgin PSF and PSF made from Recycled PET Flakes is called Recycled PSF. 100% virgin PSF is usually costly than recycled PSF and is also more hygienic. Polyester Staple Fibre is widely used in spinning, weaving non-woven.PSF is mainly used for fibre fillings in pillows and sofa. It is also used widely in spinning to make Polyester Spun Yarn which is then knitted or weaved into fabrics.
PSF is mainly classified as Solid & Hollow Polyester staple fiber. Hollow PSF can also have some properties like Conjugated, Siliconized, Slick and Dry PSF. These properties are usually represented as HSC (Hollow Conjugated Siliconized), HCNS (Hollow Conjugate Non-Siliconized) or Slick PSF that has a smooth finish. Depending on the lustre, PSF can be classified as Semi Dull and Bright. By mixing color master-batch, dope dyed PSF can also be obtained in Optical White, Black and several colors.
Polyester Staple Fibre is available in different Deniers with different cut-lengths. It is mainly available in 1.4D, 1.5D, 3D, 6D, 7D, 15D and cut lengths like 32mm, 38mm, 44mm, 64mm. PSF is mainly produced in India, China, Taiwna, Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Korea. We, at JAML, can manufacture the best quality Polyester Staple Fibre, as per your order and requirement.

20. PET

Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.
It may also be referred to by the brand names Terylene in the UK, Lavsan in Russia and the former Soviet Union, and Dacron in the US.
The majority of the world’s PET production is for synthetic fibres (in excess of 60%), with bottle production accounting for about 30% of global demand. In the context of textile applications, PET is referred to by its common name, polyester, whereas the acronym PET is generally used in relation to packaging. Polyester makes up about 18% of world polymer production and is the fourth-most-produced polymer after polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
PET consists of polymerized units of the monomer ethylene terephthalate, with repeating (C10H8O4) units. PET is commonly recycled, and has the number “1” as its resin identification code (RIC).
Depending on its processing and thermal history, polyethylene terephthalate may exist both as an amorphous (transparent) and as a semi-crystalline polymer. The semicrystalline material might appear transparent (particle size less than 500nm) or opaque and white (particle size up to a few micrometers) depending on its crystal structure and particle size.
The monomer bis(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate can be synthesized by the esterification reaction between terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol with water as a byproduct, or by transesterification reaction between ethylene glycol and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) with methanol as a byproduct. Polymerization is through a polycondensation reaction of the monomers (done immediately after esterification/transesterification) with water as the byproduct.
Uses
Plastic bottles made from PET are widely used for soft drinks (see carbonation). For certain specialty bottles, such as those designated for beer containment, PET sandwiches an additional polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) layer to further reduce its oxygen permeability.
Biaxially oriented PET film (often known by one of its trade names, “Mylar”) can be aluminized by evaporating a thin film of metal onto it to reduce its permeability, and to make it reflective and opaque (MPET). These properties are useful in many applications, including flexible food packaging and thermal insulation (such as space blankets). Because of its high mechanical strength, PET film is often used in tape applications, such as the carrier for magnetic tape or backing for pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes.
Non-oriented PET sheet can be thermoformed to make packaging trays and blister packs.[7] If crystallizable PET is used, the trays can be used for frozen dinners, since they withstand both freezing and oven baking temperatures. Both amorphous PET and BoPET are transparent to the naked eye. Color-conferring dyes can easily be formulated into PET sheet.
When filled with glass particles or fibres, it becomes significantly stiffer and more durable.
PET is also used as a substrate in thin film solar cells.
Terylene (a trademark formed by inversion of (polyeth)ylene ter(ephthalate)) is also spliced into bell rope tops to help prevent wear on the ropes as they pass through the ceiling.
PET is used since late 2014 as liner material in type IV composite high pressure gas cylinders. PET works as a much better barrier to oxygen than earlier used (LD)PE.
PET is used as a 3D printing filament, as well as in the 3D printing plastic PETG.

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